目录

mysql 查询操作

mysql 查询操作

初始化环境

创建数据库,

-- create database
create database day111 default charset utf8 collate utf8_general_ci;

use day111;

创建用户表

/assets/img/post/2021/2021-12-07-mysql-select-operation/image-20211207233206975.png

-- create table user

create table user (
  id int not null primary key auto_increment,
  name varchar(6) not null,
  password varchar(32) not null,
  age int,
  salary int  null default 0,
  depart_id int not null
) default charset=utf8;


-- 
insert into `user`
	(name, `password`, age, salary,depart_id) 
values
	("诸葛亮","zhuge123",33,1240,1),
	("关羽","guanyu3234",43,4293,1),
	("曹操","caocao908",42,13000,3),
	("周瑜","zylovexq1314",28,10010,2),
	("张昭","zhang111",84,4500,2);

创建部门表

/assets/img/post/2021/2021-12-07-mysql-select-operation/image-20211207232616496.png

-- create table depart
create table depart (
  id int not null primary key auto_increment,
  name varchar(10)
) default charset utf8;


-- insert data
insert into depart
	(name)
values
	("蜀国"),
	("吴国"),
	("魏国");

查看结果

mysql> show tables;
+------------------+
| Tables_in_day111 |
+------------------+
| depart           |
| user             |
+------------------+

单表查询

条件查询(where)

-- 1. 
select * from user;

-- 2. 条件查询
select name, age from user where age > 30;
select * from user where depart_id = 1;

select name,depart_id from user where depart_id!=3;
select name,depart_id from user where depart_id<>3;

-- 3. 模糊查询
select name,`password` from user where `password` like "zh%";
select name,`password` from user where `password` like "zylove__1314";

查询排序 (order by)

-- 升序
select name,age from user order by age;
select name,age from user order by age asc;

-- 降序
select name,age from user order by age desc;

-- where , order by
select id, name,age from user
  where id>2
  order by age desc;

限制结果数量 (limit)

select id, name,age from user limit 3;

-- where, ordery by, limit
select id, name,age from user where id >2 order by age desc limit 3;

分组(group by) 与聚合函数

-- select id,name from user group by depart_id;
-- (1055, "Expression #1 of SELECT list is not in GROUP BY clause and contains nonaggregated column 'day111.user.id' which is not functionally dependent on columns in GROUP BY clause; this is incompatible with sql_mode=only_full_group_by")


select count(name), depart_id from user group by depart_id;
select max(age),min(salary), depart_id from user group by depart_id;

-- where, group by , order by, limit;
select max(age), min(salary), depart_id from user 
  where id > 2
  group by depart_id 
  order by max(age) desc
  limit 2;

分组条件 (having)

select count(name), max(age), min(salary) from user
  group by depart_id
  having max(age) < 50;


-- where, group by, having, order by, limit
select count(name), max(age), min(salary) from user
  where id > 1
  group by depart_id
  having max(age) <50
  order by max(age) desc
  limit 1;

联表查询

为了展示 联表查询 的差异, 增加 depart 字段产生数据差。

user day111;

-- depart table
insert into depart(name) 
  values ("南蛮"), ("羌笛");
  
select * from depart;

+----+------+
| id | name |
+----+------+
| 1  | 蜀国 |
| 2  | 吴国 |
| 3  | 魏国 |
| 4  | 南蛮 |
| 5  | 羌笛 |
+----+------+

-- user table
--- 修改 name 字段长度 并添加数据
alter table `user` modify column name varchar(128) not null;
insert into user(name, password, age, salary, depart_id)
   values
   ("Jack Sparrow", "jack123", 28, 4921, 10),
   ("Thor Odinson", "thor3432", 8321, 35234, 11);


select * from user;

+----+--------------+--------------+------+--------+-----------+
| id | name         | password     | age  | salary | depart_id |
+----+--------------+--------------+------+--------+-----------+
| 1  | 诸葛亮       | zhuge123     | 33   | 1240   | 1         |
| 2  | 关羽         | guanyu3234   | 43   | 4293   | 1         |
| 3  | 曹操         | caocao908    | 42   | 13000  | 3         |
| 4  | 周瑜         | zylovexq1314 | 28   | 10010  | 2         |
| 5  | 张昭         | zhang111     | 84   | 4500   | 2         |
| 6  | Jack Sparrow | jack123      | 28   | 4921   | 10        |
| 7  | Thor Odinson | thor3432     | 8321 | 35234  | 11        |
+----+--------------+--------------+------+--------+-----------+

LEFT JOIN .. ONRIGHT JOIN .. ON

/assets/img/post/2021/2021-12-07-mysql-select-operation/image-20211208165921860.png

left/right join .. on 本质上是一样的, 将多张表 联结 成一张 虚拟表 进行数据查询。

  1. left / right 用于相对位置上的 主表 。 主表将展示全部数据, 从表 多的数据不展示少的数据以 NULL站位

  2. on 指定 **联结 ** 条件。

-- left join
select * from
 `user` LEFT JOIN depart 
 ON user.depart_id=depart.id;
  

/assets/img/post/2021/2021-12-07-mysql-select-operation/image-20211208170727538.png

-- right join

select * from 
  `user` RIGHT JOIN depart
  ON user.depart_id=depart.id;

/assets/img/post/2021/2021-12-07-mysql-select-operation/image-20211208170746896.png

交集 inner join .. on

inner join 展示交集, 双方都有的。

/assets/img/post/2021/2021-12-07-mysql-select-operation/image-20211208165951644.png

select * from 
  `user` inner join depart
  on user.depart_id = depart.id;

/assets/img/post/2021/2021-12-07-mysql-select-operation/image-20211208170804528.png

并集 full join .. on

展示所有数据

/assets/img/post/2021/2021-12-07-mysql-select-operation/image-20211208170933058.png

select * from 
  `user` full join depart
  ON user.depart_id = depart.id;

注意: mysql 5.7 中不支持 full join .. on 。 可以使用 union + left/right join 实现

select * from user LEFT join depart on user.depart_id = depart.id
UNION
select * from user RIGHT join depart on user.depart_id = depart.id;

/assets/img/post/2021/2021-12-07-mysql-select-operation/image-20211208171904801.png

笛卡尔积 self jion 自联结

自联结没有关键字, 将多张表以 逗号 , 分隔, 结果是一张 笛卡尔积 的超级大表。

select * from user,depart;

联表查询选择字段

查询部分字段时, 需要使用 table1.columnA, table2.columnB 的方式 显示 指定要查明的字段。

select user.id, user.name, depart.name from
  user left join depart
  on user.depart_id = depart.id;

/assets/img/post/2021/2021-12-07-mysql-select-operation/image-20211208172154327.png

联表查询条件过滤

联表就是产生一张虚拟表, 对虚拟表的所有 条件、分组 都与普通表一样。

select user.id, user.name, depart.name from
  user left join depart
  on user.depart_id = depart.id
WHERE user.id%2 = 0;

/assets/img/post/2021/2021-12-07-mysql-select-operation/image-20211208172526455.png

查询结果组合 Union

union 不是联结原始表, 而是将多个 结果 组合成一张表。

  1. 要求 多个查询结果的 字段数 一样
  2. 不要求 多个查询结果字段对应的类型一样。
select name, age from user where id = 1
UNION
select age, name from user where id = 1;

/assets/img/post/2021/2021-12-07-mysql-select-operation/image-20211208173231200.png